Lillian Grace Kathan1

b. circa 1902
     Lillian Grace Kathan was born circa 1902 at NY.1 She was the daughter of Warren Kathan and Mary Holcombe.1 Lillian Grace Kathan married Patrick Chasson circa 1919.2

Citations

  1. [S363] 1910 Federal Census,.
  2. [S388] 1930 Federal Census.

(?) Case1

b. say 1775
     (?) Case was born say 1775 at CT.1 He married Lane (?)1

Child of (?) Case and Lane (?)

Citations

  1. [S33] 1860 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Carrie B. Tuller1

b. January 1870
     Carrie B. Tuller was born in January 1870 at CT.1 She was the daughter of Erskine Tuller and Susan C. Travers.1

Citations

  1. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Marcus Case1

b. circa 1835
     Marcus Case was born circa 1835 at OH.1 He was the son of (?) Case and Lane (?)1 Marcus Case married Charity (?)1

Child of Marcus Case and Charity (?)

Citations

  1. [S33] 1860 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Geraldine L. Busby

b. February 1893
     Geraldine L. Busby was born in February 1893 at IA.1 She was the daughter of Ervin E. Busby and Ada M. Alderman.

Citations

  1. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Reed Case1

b. circa 1858
     Reed Case was born circa 1858 at OH.1 He was the son of Marcus Case and Charity (?)1

Citations

  1. [S33] 1860 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Susan C. Travers

b. 14 September 1835, d. 4 September 1919
     Susan C. Travers was born on 14 September 1835 at Rhinebeck, Dutchess Co., NY. She married Erskine Tuller, son of Levi Lester Tuller and Mary Ann Strickland. Susan C. Travers died on 4 September 1919 at age 83.

Children of Susan C. Travers and Erskine Tuller

Citations

  1. [S362] 1880 Federal Census,.
  2. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Edward Francis Phelps Jr.

b. 7 August 1912, d. 18 January 2008
     Edward Francis Phelps Jr. was born on 7 August 1912 at East Hartford, Hartford Co., CT. He was the son of Edward Francis Phelps and Elsie Cooper. Edward Francis Phelps Jr. married Margaret C. Heley. Edward Francis Phelps Jr. died on 18 January 2008 at Thomasville, GA, at age 95.

From the Hartford Courant on 20 January 2008:

Edward F. Phelps, Jr., Served Seven Presidents Edward F. Phelps, Jr., recently of Thomasville, GA, passed away today Friday, (January 18, 2008) at his residence after a brief illness. Mr. Phelps retired from Federal Government service some 24 years ago after working in the Executive Offices of seven Presidents of the United States beginning with the administration of Franklin Roosevelt. Mr. Phelps maintained the highest intelligence clearances available to this nation as Director of the Offices of Price Administration, Price Stabilization, and Defense Mobilization. His final 13 years in Washington, D.C., were as Controller of the FDIC. Mr. Phelps was honored in Washington as a nominee for the President's Distinguished Service Award, and was a contributor to articles, journals, and papers with and for the Federal Government regarding protection of human lives, food supplies, economic subsidies, and monetary stability in the United States in the event of war on our soil, or in the event of atomic attack. He was written about and interviewed by such magazine's as Fortune and Business Week, and newspapers including the New York Times and The Washington Post. He was a noble and proud member of that cadre' who serve our Country in both war and peace at the highest levels of a free and democratic government often in perilous times. He had no political party affiliation. The papers he leaves are vast and prolific and trace the history of this Country through three wars and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Mr. Phelps was born in East Hartford, CT on August 7,1912, and grew up in West Hartford where he resided with his parents the late Elsie Cooper Phelps and Edward Francis Phelps, Sr., he was pre-deceased by his brother, Richard (Susan), of Martha's Vineyard, MA., and leaves a younger brother, Howard C. Phelps, of Elloree, SC.

Mr. Phelps graduated from Hall High School in West Hartford with numerous academic and athletic awards, and attended the University of Alabama where he combined an athletic and academic program before entering the wholesale grocery industry in Hartford, CT at the E.S. Kibbee Company, from there becoming Secretary of the Wholesale Grocers Association of the United States in Manhattan, NY, and later Executive Vice President of the wholesale grocery firm, Whaples-Platter in Ft. Worth/Dallas TX. He was then called to Washington toward the end of the Second World War where he remained in Executive Offices of the President(s) for much of his respected career before being asked to take Controller position at the FDIC in Washington D.C.

He lived in Leesburg, VA. Mr. Phelps was married to the late Margaret Heley Phelps of West Hartford, CT, and Lighthouse Point, FL. He leaves two daughters who both announce and share the passing of their father and the joy he brought to their lives, Joanne Phelps Smith, of Deerfield Beach, FL (the late Ronald I. Smith), formerly of West Hartford, CT, and Dr. Judith Phelps LaVorgna, (the late L. Paul LaVorgna, HI), formerly of West Hartford, CT, Deerfield Beach, FL, and now, Thomasville, GA., with whom he made his last home.

He was a proud grandfather of nine grandchildren (Thomas, Christea, Timothy, Tracy, Michael, Joanne, and Christopher Byrne, James, and Andrew Smith) and their spouses, as well as eighteen great grandchildren, four nephews and seven nieces. Mr. Phelps also leaves good friends and associates throughout the United States including frequent visitors from his Washington years, Mr. and Mrs. Lee (Dolly) Rhodes of Moncks Corner, SC. In his retirement, Mr. Phelps often served as a speaker and consultant, he was also a planner and founding member of Sweetwater Country Club outside of Orlando, FL., He lived most of his long and active retirement in Altamonte Springs, FL., where he is remembered for his grace, enduring friendships, humor, golf handicap, and intellect. At his request there will be no funeral or memorial service for Mr. Phelps. A private remembrance will be held by his daughters at a later date. Donations in his name may be made to Hospice, Gordon Avenue, Thomasville, GA, 31792, or the Jane Goodall Institute, 4245 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 600, Arlington, VA. 22203.

Anne Dudley

b. circa 1612, d. 16 September 1672
     Anne Dudley was also known as Anne Bradstreet. She was born circa 1612 at Northampton, England. She was the daughter of Gov. Thomas Dudley and Dorothy York. Anne Dudley married Gov. Simon Bradstreet circa 1628 at Northamptonshire, England. Anne Dudley died on 16 September 1672 at Andover, Essex Co., MA.

Anne, a poet, was born in England, probably in Northampton, the second child and eldest daughter of Dorothy Yorke and Thomas Dudley, steward to Theophilus Clinton, the earl of Lincoln. No state records remain of Bradstreet's birth or marriage, and no one knows the location of her grave. Yet she came from a prominent family and attained individual fame. Her mother's extraction and estate were described by Cotton Mather as "considerable," and her father served as deputy governor and, later, governor of Massachusetts. She did not attend school but was well and widely educated at home. From about age six to age sixteen, she lived at Sempringham in Lincolnshire and had the run of the earl of Lincoln's vast library. Her poems reveal a wide range of specific references to the Geneva Bible, the Greek and Latin classics, and to such later writers as Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip Sidney, Elizabeth I, and Francis Quarles. Her historical poems benefit from a detailed knowledge of Sir Walter Raleigh's History of the World (1614), and she acknowledged as an inspiration for her own poetry Joshua Sylvester's translation of The Divine Weekes and Workes (1605) of the French Calvinist Guillaume Du Bartas.

During Bradstreet's early years, according to her letter "To My Dear Children," she "began to make conscience of my ways" and to find "much comfort in reading the Scriptures, especially those places I thought most concerned my condition," a focus that characterized her religion throughout her life. There was little eschatology in Bradstreet's writing and no asceticism. Though she prayed that God would "wean" her affections from an immoderate love for the things of this world, her attention remained on them as both facts and metaphors, "for were earthly comforts permanent, who would look for heavenly?" In adolescence, "about 14 or 15, I found my heart more carnal, and sitting loose from God," but "vanity and the follies of youth" were repented of at sixteen, a remarkable year in which she survived smallpox, experienced conversion, and married Simon Bradstreet.

In 1630 Bradstreet and her husband journeyed with the Winthrop party on board the Arbella to Salem, "where I found a new world and new manners, at which my heart rose." Whatever the precise cause of her anger, her life in this new world was far from easy. She "fell into a lingering illness, like a consumption," and in convalescence she wrote her earliest extant poem, "Upon a Fit of Sickness, Anno 1632. Aetatis suae, 19." That same year, she became pregnant with Samuel, the first of her eight children.Though this second mode of production was more conventionally approved than the first, Bradstreet linked the two. In the early years of her marriage, she worried that her apparent barrenness might result from God's displeasure. Those fears were eased by pregnancy and promptly replaced by another, the fear of dying in childbirth. At such times, it was prudent to leave behind some record for one's family. And Bradstreet's description of her message to her children might serve just as well for her poetry: "I have not studied in this you read to show my skill, but to declare the truth, not to set forth myself, but the glory of God." Writing poetry was a form of meditation, a way of acknowledging God's metaphoric linking of this world with the next, and one way to make somewhat more durable a world both beautiful and transient, "No sooner blown, but dead and gone, / ev'n as a word that's speaking." For the next thirty-seven years, she continued to write poems, which she sometimes enfigured as children.

The years were filled with public event. Bradstreet was among the founders of Newtowne (later Cambridge) in 1631, lived at Ipswich (1635-1645), and was among the settlers of North Andover, where she lived from 1645 until her death. Her husband held a series of public offices as judge, agent, and commissioner during her life and would later become governor, yet hers were not occasional or public poems.

By 1642 she had completed her "Quaternions" on the four elements, humors, ages, seasons, and monarchies. These erudite poems ranged over science, religion, and history, yet they were dedicated to her father in thanks for his part in the education here displayed, and they were focused on what such knowledge might teach a soul journeying through time on the way to eternity.

In 1650 Bradstreet's poems became public when John Woodbridge, the husband of her sister Mercy, took her poems to London, where they were published by Stephen Bowtell, apparently without her permission. However conventional such disclaimers of authorship might have been in her time, there is no evidence that Bradstreet had a chance to edit the manuscript before publication, and it is not likely that she would have chosen the title, The Tenth Muse Lately sprung up in America. Or Severall Poems, compiled with great variety of Wit and Learning . . . By a Gentlewoman in those parts. The book was well received and listed in 1658 in William London's Catalogue of the Most Vendible Books in England. In subsequent years, Bradstreet revised these early poems and added eighteen others for a second edition, published in Boston in 1678 as Several Poems . . . By a Gentlewoman in New England.

Bradstreet was the first American to publish a book of poetry. Her work was highly valued in her time (hers was the only book of poetry found in Edward Taylor's library at his death), devalued in the nineteenth century, and appreciated anew in the twentieth. It is avowedly Puritan but multivocal, sometimes patriarchal, sometimes feminist. Her "Prologue" humors masculine supremacy ironically, while her poem on Queen Elizabeth is more direct and explicit: Nay masculines, you have thus taxed us long, But she, though dead, will vindicate our wrong. Let such as say our sex is void of reason, Know 'tis a slander now but once was treason.


Her later poems are more personal in their subject matter, but throughout Bradstreet's work the largest issues and greatest truths find expression in humble details, and those details are in turn examined for what they will reveal of God. For that reason, her speakers are humble but not patient: "But he's a beetle-head that can't descry / A world of wealth within that rubbish lie." Her work enacted the quest to find the wealth within the rubbish. For all her doubts about God's will and human actions, Bradstreet was no rebel. Unlike her younger sister Sarah, she was never accused of "irregular prophecying." Indeed, her contemporaries and such successors as Cotton Mather heaped praises upon the poetry in which their own beliefs were so profoundly questioned.

In Bradstreet's work, such paradoxes argue not hypocrisy but integrity. She was what she appeared to be--a poet, a woman, and a Puritan--and her work continues to suggest how complex such categories can be. 1

Children of Anne Dudley and Gov. Simon Bradstreet

Citations

  1. [S690] ANB, online http://www.anb.org

Edward Francis Phelps

b. 22 January 1887, d. November 1972
     Edward Francis Phelps was born on 22 January 1887 at Canton Center, CT.1 He was the son of Samuel O. Phelps and Delia (?)2 Edward Francis Phelps married Elsie Cooper. Edward Francis Phelps died in November 1972 at Deland, Volusia Co., FL, at age 85.

When Edward registered for the WWI draft he was living at 55 Sterling St., Hartford. He was a clerk for the Travelers Insurance Co. He listed his birth date as 22 Jan 1887; the social security death index lists his birth as 22 January 1885; the WWII draft registration lists him as born 22 Jan 1886.

When he registered for the WWII draft, Edward was living at 71 Ledgewood Rd, West Hartford and working for the Travelers Insurance Company.

Edward and Elsie were enumerated in the 1920 Hardford Ward 10, Hartford Co., CT, federal census. He was a life insurance audit clerk 32, she was 30. Children in the household were Edward F. Jr. 7, and Howard C. 4 years 10 months.

Edward and Elsie were enumerated in the 1930 West Hartford, Hartford Co., CT, federal census. He was an insurance auditor, age 45, she was 40. Children in the household were Edward F. Jr. 17, Howard C. 15, and Richard D. 6. Also in the household was mother-in-law Loretta L. Cooper, 80, a widow.

Children of Edward Francis Phelps and Elsie Cooper

Citations

  1. [S207] World War I Draft Registrations, Draft Cards unknown repository.
  2. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Rebecca Tyng1

b. 13 July 1651, d. 21 September 1722
     Rebecca Tyng was born on 13 July 1651.1 She married Gov. Joseph Dudley, son of Gov. Thomas Dudley and Katherine Deighton, in 1667/68.1 Rebecca Tyng died on 21 September 1722 at age 71.1

Child of Rebecca Tyng and Gov. Joseph Dudley

Citations

  1. [S548] Wargs: John Forbes Kerry, online http://www.wargs.com/political/kerry.html

Richard Phelps

b. circa 1923
     Richard Phelps was born circa 1923 at CT.1 He was the son of Edward Francis Phelps and Elsie Cooper. Richard Phelps married Susan (?)

Citations

  1. [S388] 1930 Federal Census.

Mary Browne1

b. 16 January 1656, d. 14 June 1690
     Mary Browne was born on 16 January 1656 at Suffolk Co., MA.1 She married Waitstill Winthrop, son of Gov. John Winthrop Jr. and Elizabeth Reade, before 18 February 1678.1,2 Mary Browne died on 14 June 1690 at MA at age 34.1

Child of Mary Browne and Waitstill Winthrop

Citations

  1. [S548] Wargs: John Forbes Kerry, online http://www.wargs.com/political/kerry.html
  2. [S820] Scott C. Steward and Chip Rowe, Robert Winthrop, page 109.

Howard C. Phelps

b. circa 1915
     Howard C. Phelps was born circa 1915 at CT.1 He was the son of Edward Francis Phelps and Elsie Cooper.

Citations

  1. [S39] 1920 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Mary Ann Strickland

     Mary Ann Strickland was also known as Mary A. Strikeland.1 She married Levi Lester Tuller, son of Levi Tuller and Nancy Griswold, on 13 December 1825 at Simsbury, Hartford Co., CT.1

Child of Mary Ann Strickland and Levi Lester Tuller

Citations

  1. [S45] Albert C. Bates, Simsbury, page 289.

Samuel O. Phelps1

b. February 1847
     Samuel O. Phelps was born in February 1847 at CT.1 He married Delia (?) circa 1873.1

Sam. O. was enumerated in the 1870 Hartford, Hartford Co., CT, federal census; age 23.

Samuel O. and Mary were enumerated in the 1880 Newington, Hartford Co., CT, federal census. He is a farmer, age 27, she is 24. Children in the household are Mary 5, Adelia 3, and Samuel 2.

Samuel O. and Delia were enumerated in the 1900 Hartford, Hartford Co., CT, federal census. He was clerk age 53, she was 50. Children in the household were Mary 25, Delia 23, Sameul O. Jr. 21, Howard 19, Josephine 18, Edward 15, and Harry 13. The census taker indicated that she had 8 children, 7 still living.

Samuel O and Delia were enumerated in the 1910 Hartford, Hartford Co., CT, federal census. He was 62, she was 56. The census taker indicated that it was the first marriage for both. Children in the household were Samuel O jr. 30, John H. 28, Edward F. 25, Harry C. 21, and Josephine A. 25. The census taker indicated that she had 7 children, all alive.

Child of Samuel O. Phelps and Delia (?)

Citations

  1. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Annie H. Tuller1

b. February 1879
     Annie H. Tuller was born in February 1879 at CT.1 She was the daughter of Erskine Tuller and Susan C. Travers.1

Citations

  1. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Asahel Baldwin

     Asahel Baldwin was born at Colebrook, Litchfield Co., CT.

Sarah E. Brown

b. 11 March 1875, d. 26 May 1916
     Sarah E. Brown was born on 11 March 1875. She married Lester E. Tuller, son of Erskine Tuller and Susan C. Travers, in 1904. Sarah E. Brown died on 26 May 1916 at age 41.

Children of Sarah E. Brown and Lester E. Tuller

Citations

  1. [S363] 1910 Federal Census,.

Pearl E. Armington

b. 11 April 1909, d. 30 October 1998
     Pearl E. Armington was born on 11 April 1909 at South Sandisfield, MA.1 She married Lester E. Tuller Jr., son of Lester E. Tuller and Sarah E. Brown, on 26 February 1929. Pearl E. Armington died on 30 October 1998 at Simsbury, Hartford Co., CT, at age 89.1

Citations

  1. [S182] Social Security Death Index (on-line), Ancestry.com, SSDI, Ancestry.com, SSAN 042-12-5181.

Charles William Austin1

b. 4 May 1851, d. 22 November 1930
     Charles William Austin was born on 4 May 1851 at Triumph, La Salle Co., IL.1 He married Alma O. Holcombe, daughter of Warren Jarvis Holcombe and Sarah Elizabeth Bass, on 2 September 1874 at La Salle, IL.1 Charles William Austin married Johanna Sophia Johnson on 15 April 1888. Charles William Austin died on 22 November 1930 at Downer, Clay Co., MN, at age 791, and was buried on 26 November 1930 at Weisner Cemetery, Mendota, La Salle Co., IL.1

Children of Charles William Austin and Alma O. Holcombe

Citations

  1. [S323] Zophar Holcombe, online http://kstephens.topcities.com/holcomb6.htm

Catherine Hamby

b. 1611, d. circa 1650
     Catherine Hamby was born in 1611 at England.1 She married Edward Hutchinson, son of William Hutchinson and Anne Marbury, on 13 October 1636. Catherine Hamby died circa 1650 at Boston, Suffolk Co., MA.

Child of Catherine Hamby and Edward Hutchinson

Citations

  1. [S618] Gary Boyd Roberts, Royal Descents, page 278.

James Warren Holcombe1

b. 9 April 1858, d. 21 September 1947
     James Warren Holcombe was born on 9 April 1858 at Mitchell, Mitchell Co., IA.1 He was the son of Warren Jarvis Holcombe and Sarah Elizabeth Bass.1 James Warren Holcombe married Rosa Elizabeth Valley on 2 September 1884 at IA.1 James Warren Holcombe died on 21 September 1947 at Arlington, Brookings Co., SD, at age 891, and was buried at Arlington Cemetery, Arlington, Brookings Co., SD.1

Citations

  1. [S323] Zophar Holcombe, online http://kstephens.topcities.com/holcomb6.htm

Susan (?)

     Susan (?) married Richard Phelps, son of Edward Francis Phelps and Elsie Cooper.

Ronald I. Smith

     Ronald I. Smith died.

Anne Marbury

b. 20 July 1591, d. 20 August 1643
     Anne Marbury was born on 20 July 1591 at Alford, Lincolnshire, England.1 She was the daughter of Francis Marbury and Bridget Dryden.2 Anne Marbury married William Hutchinson on 9 August 1612 at St. Martin Vintry, London, Middlesex, England. Anne Marbury died on 20 August 1643 at Pelham Bay, Long Island, NY, at age 52.1

from Wikipedia:

Anne Hutchinson was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. Her brilliant mind and kindness won admiration and a following. Hutchinson held Bible study meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaiming boldly facets of her own theological interpretations, some of which offended colony leadership. Great controversy ensued, and after an arduous trial before a jury of officials from both government and clergy, eventually she was banished from her colony.

She is a key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. The state of Massachusetts honors her with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration."

Anne Hutchinson was born Anne Marbury in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, in July, 1591, the daughter of Bridget Dryden and Francis Marbury, a deacon at Christ Church, Cambridge. Anne's father believed that most of the ministers in the Church of England were incompetent and lacked proper training. He was jailed for a year because of his "subversive" words of dissent.

Anne was home-schooled and read from her father's library. She had grown to admire her father's ideals and assertiveness, and bold about questioning the principles of faith and the authority of the Church.

At the age of 21, Anne married Will Hutchinson. She and her family followed the sermons of John Cotton, a Protestant minister whose teachings echoed those of her father's, but were now more commonly accepted under the increasingly popular banner of Puritanism.

Many Protestants had grown increasingly concerned with what they saw as corruption within the Catholic Church and to a certain degree within the Protestant Church. A new reformist movement known as Puritanism evolved, thus named because its main objective was to "purify" the Church of England of all residual Catholic influence.

In the hope of finding religious freedom in America, she and her family emigrated from England to Massachusetts in 1634, together with other colonists. Three of her fifteen children died during the oceanic crossing. She lost one more child in America.

The majority of colonial European settlers who came to America for religious reasons came for the freedom to practice their own religion, and in some cases to impose it on others. In their early years, most colonies enforced a uniformity at least as strict as had occurred in the country they had left. There was considerable Puritan intolerance in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Her particular "heresy" was to maintain that it was a blessing and not a curse to be a woman.

Hutchinson may have been brought down because of her gender. Other commentators have suggested that she fell victim to contemporary mores surrounding the role of women in Puritan society. Hutchinson spoke her mind freely within the context of a male hierarchy unaccustomed to outspoken women. In addition, she welcomed men into her home, performing an unusual act in a Puritan society.

Against that background, Anne was extremely outspoken about some of her most controversial views. She was an avid student of the Bible which she freely interpreted in the light of what she termed her to be her "divine inspiration." She generally adhered to the principles of Puritan orthodoxy. Notably, however, she held enormously progressive, ahead-of-her-times notions about the equality and rights of women, in contradiction of both Puritan and prevailing cultural attitudes.

She was forthright and compelling in proclaiming these beliefs. Doing so put her in considerable tension not only with the Massachusetts Bay Colony's government, who were accountable to the established Church of England (Anglican), but also with other Puritans, especially the clergy.

She began conducting informal Bible studies and discussion groups in her home, something that gave scope to Puritan intellects. Hutchinson invited her friends and neighbors—women, at first. Participants felt free to question religious beliefs and to decry racial prejudice, including enslavement of Native Americans. Hutchinson explored Scripture much in the way of a minister. Rather than teach traditional Puritan interpretations of Scripture, she studied the Bible in great depth for herself. Often her spiritual interpretation differed widely from the learned but legalistic reading offered from the Puritan Sunday pulpit. In particular, Hutchinson constantly challenged the standard interpretation of the story of Adam and Eve. This was a vital text for the Puritans, key to the doctrine of original sin. But it was regularly cited to assign special blame to women as the source of sin and to justify the extremely patriarchal structure of Puritan society.

Since she had a strong personal concern for women's lack of rights and racial prejudice against the Native Americans, she also applied her personal interpretation of the principles of the Bible to those social concerns. Further, she openly challenged some of the moral and legal codes of the Puritans, as well as the authority of the clergy, something that would weigh against her later on.

As word of her teachings spread, she attracted new followers including many men. Among them were men like Sir Henry Vane, who would become the governor of the colony in 1636. Attendance at her home study group grew to upwards of eighty people and had to be moved to the local church.

Increasingly, the ministers opposed Hutchinson’s meetings, ostensibly on the grounds that such “unauthorized” religious gatherings might confuse the faithful. But gradually the opposition was expressed in openly misogynistic terms. Hutchinson was a modern “Jezebel” who was infecting women with perverse and “abominable” ideas regarding their dignity and rights. Anne paid no attention to her critics. When they cited the biblical texts on the need for women to keep silent in church she rejoined with a verse from Titus permitting that “the elder women should instruct the younger.”

To the chagrin of clergy and colony officials, she began espousing the covenant of grace as opposed to the covenant of works, a theological position that during the later Protestant Reformation was also taught by John Calvin and others. She tended to believe that faith alone was necessary to salvation. She also claimed that she could identify "the elect" (see article on Predestination) among the colonists. These positions caused John Cotton, John Winthrop, and other former friends to view her as an antinomian heretic.

By 1637, Puritan ministers in the colony had labeled Hutchinson a modern “Jezebel” who was infecting women with perverse and “abominable” ideas regarding their dignity and rights. That year, Sir Henry Vane lost the governorship to John Winthrop who did not share Vane's favorable opinion of Hutchinson. He instead "considered her a threat to his 'city set on a hill'" (a distinctive of Puritan theology) and criticized her meetings as being a "thing not tolerable nor comely in the sight of God, nor fitting for [her] sex."[2] Governor Winthrop and the established religious hierarchy considered many of her comments in her discussion groups to be heretical, specifically, her "unfounded criticism of the clergy from an unauthorized source." She told the governor that the Lord had revealed himself to her: "…upon a Throne of Justice, and all the world appearing before him, and though I must come to New England, yet I must not fear nor be dismayed." Governor Winthrop's retort came swiftly: "I am persuaded that the revelation she brings forth is delusion."

She was brought to civil trial on 1637 by the General Court of Massachusetts, presided over by Winthrop, on the charge of “traducing the ministers.” The Court included both government officials and Puritan clergy. She was forty-six at the time and advanced in her fifteenth pregnancy. Nevertheless, she was forced to stand for several days before a board of male interrogators as they tried desperately to get her to admit her secret blasphemies. They accused her of violating the fifth commandment – to “honor the father and mother” – accusing her of encouraging dissent against the fathers of the commonwealth. It was charged that by attending her gatherings women were being tempted to neglect the care of their own families. Anne skillfully defended herself until it was clear that there was no escape from the court’s predetermined judgment. Cornered, she addressed the court with her own judgment:

You have no power over my body, neither can you do me any harm. I fear none but the great Jehovah, which hath foretold me of these things, and I do verily believe that he will deliver me out of your hands….

This outburst brought forth angry jeers. She was called a heretic and an instrument of the devil. In the words of one minister, “You have stepped out of your place, you have rather been a husband than a wife, a preacher than a hearer, and a magistrate than a subject.” In August of 1637 she was condemned by the Court that included John Eliot, famous missionary to Massachusetts Bay Colony Indians, and translator of the first complete Bible printed in America. They voted to banish her from the colony "as being a woman not fit for our society."[7] She was put under house arrest to await her religious trial.

In March 1638, the First Church in Boston conducted a religious trial. They accused Hutchinson of blasphemy. They also accused her of "lewd and lascivious conduct" for having men and women in her house at the same time during her Sunday meetings. This religious court found her guilty and voted to excommunicate her from the Puritan Church for dissenting from Puritan orthodoxy.

Hutchinson was excommunicated and banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638, so she and her husband, William Hutchinson relocated to Rhode Island, a colony led by Roger Williams, a Baptist pastor who founded one of the two original Baptist churches in America. Later the Hutchinsons relocated to Westchester, New York. Tragically, she and all of her children except one were killed there by a group of Indians who came calling in a friendly manner, and then suddenly turned on their unsuspecting victims.

Upheld equally as a symbol of religious freedom, liberal thinking and Christian feminism, Anne Hutchinson is a contentious figure, having been lionized, mythologized and demonized by various writers. In particular, historians and other observers have interpreted and re-interpreted her life within the following frameworks: the status of women, power struggles within the church, and a similar struggle within the secular political structure. She is the only woman to have co-founded an American colony, Rhode Island, together with Roger Williams.

Historians who interpret Hutchinson's life events through the lens of the power politic have drawn the conclusion that Hutchinson suffered more because of her growing influence among local believers rather than her radical teachings.

In his article on Hutchinson in Forerunner magazine, Rogers articulates this view, writing that her interpretations were not "antithetical to what the Puritans believed at all. What began as the quibbling over fine points of Christian doctrine ended as a confrontation over the role of authority in the colony." Hutchinson may have criticized the established religious authorities, as did others, but she did so while cultivating an energetic following. That religious following was large enough to be a significant force in secular politics. Hutchinson may have doomed herself by her strong support of Vane, who was replaced by Winthrop who presided at her civil trial—as much as for the specific content of her religious views.

In front of the State House in Boston, Massachusetts, a statue stands of Anne Hutchinson with her daughter Susannah, sole survivor of the attack by Siwanoy Native Americans who killed her mother and siblings in 1643. Susannah Hutchinson was spared because of her red hair, which the Siwanoy had never seen; she was taken hostage, named "Autumn Leaf" and raised among them until ransomed back years later.

Some literary critics trace the character of Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter to Hutchinson's persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Hawthorne linked his heroine to Anne Hutchinson in his novel, according to Hutchinson's recent biographer Eve LaPlante, in "American Jezebel" (Harper, 2004).

Anne Hutchinson and her political struggle with Governor Winthrop are depicted in the 1980 play "Goodly Creatures" by William Gibson. Other notable historical characters who appear in the play are Rev. John Cotton, Governor Harry Vane, and future Quaker martyr Mary Dyer.

In southern New York State, the Hutchinson River, one of the very few rivers named after a woman, and the Hutchinson River Parkway are her most prominent namesakes. Elementary schools, such as in the town of Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and in the Westchester County towns of Pelham and Eastchester are other examples.

In 1987, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis pardoned Anne Hutchinson, revoking the order of banishment by Governor Winthrop 350 years earlier.

Children of Anne Marbury and William Hutchinson

Citations

  1. [S618] Gary Boyd Roberts, Royal Descents, page 278.
  2. [S95] Gary Boyd Roberts, Presidents 1995 Edition, page 239.

L. Paul LaVorgna III

     L. Paul LaVorgna III died at 2000.

Charity (?)1

b. circa 1836
     Charity (?) was born circa 1836 at OH.1 She married Marcus Case, son of (?) Case and Lane (?).1

Child of Charity (?) and Marcus Case

Citations

  1. [S33] 1860 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

John Milton Barnett

b. 1868
     John Milton Barnett was born in 1868 at Scotland Co., MO. He married Huldah L. Wilson, daughter of Rev. Jesse Wilson and Polly Eliza Holcombe.

Child of John Milton Barnett and Huldah L. Wilson

Katherine Nielsen

b. 1868, d. 1965
     Katherine Nielsen was born in 1868 at Somers Twp., Kenosha Co., WI. She married Knud Peder Knudsen on 3 October 1900 at Kenosha, Kenosha Co., WI. Katherine Nielsen died in 1965 at Kenosha, WI.

Child of Katherine Nielsen and Knud Peder Knudsen

Paul Wilson Barnett

b. 4 September 1893, d. May 1958
     Paul Wilson Barnett was born on 4 September 1893. He was the son of John Milton Barnett and Huldah L. Wilson. Paul Wilson Barnett died in May 1958 at age 64.

Paul's family information is from Lisa Barnett via email on 6 January 2008.

Elsie Cooper

b. circa 1889
     Elsie Cooper was born circa 1889 at NJ.1 She married Edward Francis Phelps, son of Samuel O. Phelps and Delia (?).

Children of Elsie Cooper and Edward Francis Phelps

Citations

  1. [S39] 1920 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Patrick Chasson1

b. circa 1885
     Patrick Chasson was born circa 1885 at Canada.1 He married Lillian Grace Kathan, daughter of Warren Kathan and Mary Holcombe, circa 1919.1

Citations

  1. [S388] 1930 Federal Census.

Margaret C. Heley

b. circa 1916
     Margaret C. Heley was born circa 1916. She married Edward Francis Phelps Jr., son of Edward Francis Phelps and Elsie Cooper. Margaret C. Heley died.

William James Johnson1

b. October 1869
     William James Johnson was born in October 1869 at NY.1,2 He married Gertrude Holcombe, daughter of Charles Frederick Holcombe and Mary Ellen Mattison, on 30 November 1896 at Johnsburg, Warren Co., NY.1

Child of William James Johnson and Gertrude Holcombe

Citations

  1. [S645] Donald Grant Martell, "Amos Charles Holcomb," e-mail to James Hallowell Holcombe, 25 November 2007.
  2. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Delia (?)1

b. 1850
     Delia (?) was born in 1850 at CT.1 She married Samuel O. Phelps circa 1873.1

Child of Delia (?) and Samuel O. Phelps

Citations

  1. [S35] 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address.

Louis Hiram Roblee1

b. circa 1886
     Louis Hiram Roblee was born circa 1886 at NY.1 He married Harriet W. Holcombe, daughter of Charles Frederick Holcombe and Mary Ellen Mattison, circa 1905.1

Children of Louis Hiram Roblee and Harriet W. Holcombe

Citations

  1. [S645] Donald Grant Martell, "Amos Charles Holcomb," e-mail to James Hallowell Holcombe, 25 November 2007.
  2. [S182] Social Security Death Index (on-line), Ancestry.com, SSDI, Ancestry.com, SSAN 083-09-9133.

Huldah L. Wilson

b. 1867
     Huldah L. Wilson was born in 1867 at Lewis Co., MO. She was the daughter of Rev. Jesse Wilson and Polly Eliza Holcombe. Huldah L. Wilson married John Milton Barnett.

John M. and Hulda were enumerated in the 1910 Sand Hill, Scotland Co., MO, federal census. He was a farmer, age 41, she was 41. Children in the household were Paul 16, Lola 14, Hellen 10, Marguerite 8, and John 4.

John M. and Huldah were enumerated in the 1920 Kirksville, Adair Co., MO, federal census (page 7B). He was 51, she was 52. Children in the household were Lola M. 24, Helen A. 20, Marguerite 18, and John 13. Paul was enumerated in Kirksville also as an addition/correction (page 13A).

Child of Huldah L. Wilson and John Milton Barnett

Milton L. Roblee1

b. 29 August 1909, d. 6 April 1996
     Milton L. Roblee was born on 29 August 1909 at Johnsburg, Warren Co., NY.1 He was the son of Louis Hiram Roblee and Harriet W. Holcombe.1 Milton L. Roblee died on 6 April 1996 at Venice, Sarasota Co., FL, at age 86.1

Citations

  1. [S182] Social Security Death Index (on-line), Ancestry.com, SSDI, Ancestry.com, SSAN 083-09-9133.

Kenneth H. Roblee1

b. 20 January 1927, d. 24 October 2006
     Kenneth H. Roblee was born on 20 January 1927 at NY.1,2 He was the son of Louis Hiram Roblee and Harriet W. Holcombe.1 Kenneth H. Roblee died on 24 October 2006 at Queensbury, Warren Co., NY, at age 79.2

Citations

  1. [S645] Donald Grant Martell, "Amos Charles Holcomb," e-mail to James Hallowell Holcombe, 25 November 2007.
  2. [S182] Social Security Death Index (on-line), Ancestry.com, SSDI, Ancestry.com, SSAN 122-14-8552.

Rosa Elizabeth Valley1

b. 31 March 1864, d. 5 March 1925
     Rosa Elizabeth Valley was born on 31 March 1864 at NY.1 She married James Warren Holcombe, son of Warren Jarvis Holcombe and Sarah Elizabeth Bass, on 2 September 1884 at IA.1 Rosa Elizabeth Valley died on 5 March 1925 at Arlington, Brookings Co., SD, at age 601, and was buried at Arlington Cemetery, Arlington, Brookings Co., SD.1

Citations

  1. [S323] Zophar Holcombe, online http://kstephens.topcities.com/holcomb6.htm

John Gillingham1

b. 3 December 1919, d. 29 September 2001
     John Gillingham was born on 3 December 1919.1 He married Ruth Holcombe, daughter of Asa Jay Holcombe and Pearl Knowlton. John Gillingham died on 29 September 2001 at Warrensburg, Warren Co., NY, at age 81.1

Citations

  1. [S182] Social Security Death Index (on-line), Ancestry.com, SSDI, Ancestry.com, SSAN 050-16-3036.

Alma O. Holcombe1

b. 13 April 1853, d. 3 April 1887
photo courtesy of Karleen Tignor
     Alma O. Holcombe was born on 13 April 1853 at Marquette, Green Lake Co., WI.1 She was the daughter of Warren Jarvis Holcombe and Sarah Elizabeth Bass.1 Alma O. Holcombe married Charles William Austin on 2 September 1874 at La Salle, IL.1 Alma O. Holcombe died on 3 April 1887 at Mendota, LaSalle Co., IL, at age 33.1

Charles and Alma were enumerated in the 1880 Ophir, La Salle Co., IL federal census. He was a farmer age 29 she was 27. Children in the household Edith 5, and Alta 3.

Children of Alma O. Holcombe and Charles William Austin

Citations

  1. [S323] Zophar Holcombe, online http://kstephens.topcities.com/holcomb6.htm

Charles Frank Holcombe

b. 13 September 1916, d. 13 July 1985
     Charles Frank Holcombe was born on 13 September 1916 at Johnsburg, Warren Co., NY.1 He was the son of Arthur F. Holcombe and Ethel Wood. Charles Frank Holcombe died on 13 July 1985 at Lake George, Warren Co., NY, at age 68.1

Citations

  1. [S182] Social Security Death Index (on-line), Ancestry.com, SSDI, Ancestry.com, SSAN 050-16-3034.